Factores individuales y familiares en el Trastorno del Desarrollo del Lenguaje (TDL)

Alejandra Auza, Christian Peñaloza Castillo

Resumen


El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la relación que existe entre diversos factores individuales y del contexto familiar con la detección inicial del Trastorno Específico del Lenguaje (TEL/TDL). Participaron 636 niños y sus familias, todas monolingües y hablantes del español como lengua materna. Se les aplicó un cuestionario que recoge información sobre la historia de vida del niño, la interacción con la familia, el uso del lenguaje en casa y la preocupación por el desarrollo lingüístico. También se utilizó una prueba de tamiz para detectar el riesgo de tener TEL/TDL. Los resultados mostraron que ocho variables diferenciaban estadísticamente a los niños con y sin TEL/TDL. Mediante un modelo logístico se identificaron tres factores altamente asociados con la condición de lenguaje: el sexo, el tiempo en el preescolar y los años de escolarización materna. Frente a la necesidad y el desafío de identificar tempranamente a niños con un TEL/TDL, estos factores pueden permitir focalizar la búsqueda en poblaciones infantiles con una mayor probabilidad de presentar el trastorno.

Palabras clave


Factores biológicos, factores socioambientales, detección, Trastorno Específico/del Desarrollo del Lenguaje (TEL/TDL)

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Referencias


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